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techtalk:evo:engctl01 [2020/01/10 06:46]
ixl2relax [Sub-Documents]
techtalk:evo:engctl01 [2020/07/14 22:31] (current)
ixl2relax [IGNITION TIMING - All Models Thru 2003]
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 __The 1998-2003 Non-Sport model__ used an integrated ICM on the Sensor Plate (which was still located in the '​nosecone'​ behind the round cover) and was still a Dual-Fire Spark System. __The 1998-2003 Non-Sport model__ used an integrated ICM on the Sensor Plate (which was still located in the '​nosecone'​ behind the round cover) and was still a Dual-Fire Spark System.
  
-These OEM modules had a high failure rate, apparently due to the high heat in their mounting location. The MoCo stopped providing replacement units as soon as they were allowed. The only current choice for replacement is aftermarket versions (such as the Ultima brand discussed [[techtalk:​ref:​engctl01#​ultima_-_nosecone_ignition|HERE]]).+These OEM modules had a high failure rate, apparently due to the high heat in their mounting location. The MoCo stopped providing replacement units as soon as they were allowed. The only current choice for replacement is aftermarket versions (such as the Ultima brand discussed [[techtalk:​ref:​engctl01#​ultima_-_nosecone_ignition|HERE]] ​or the equivalent from another brand).
  
 The ICM may fail with a number of different symptons, with some randomness. The bike may refuse to fire even though the starter will turn the engine over. Some riders report that flicking the RUN/STOP switch (which sends power to the ICM and the coil) several times will sometimes allow the bike to fire up. The ICM may also fail due to heat even though it fired up cold. In this case, once the engine cools down, the ICM may allow the engine to fire up again. This can be extremely frustrating as the bike will randomly stop while riding. Various other, less common, symptoms may occur from a failing nosecone ignition module (misfiring, backfiring, etc.). The ICM may fail with a number of different symptons, with some randomness. The bike may refuse to fire even though the starter will turn the engine over. Some riders report that flicking the RUN/STOP switch (which sends power to the ICM and the coil) several times will sometimes allow the bike to fire up. The ICM may also fail due to heat even though it fired up cold. In this case, once the engine cools down, the ICM may allow the engine to fire up again. This can be extremely frustrating as the bike will randomly stop while riding. Various other, less common, symptoms may occur from a failing nosecone ignition module (misfiring, backfiring, etc.).
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-{{:​techtalk:​evo:​engctl:​ignitionsystem-dual-single.jpg?450|}}     ​{{:​techtalk:​evo:​engctl:​camsensorplate-icm-98-03-a.jpg?​450|}}+{{:​techtalk:​evo:​engctl:​ignitionsystem-81-97.jpg?400|}}\\ {{:​techtalk:​evo:​engctl:​ignitionsystem-98-03-nots.jpg?​400|}}\\ {{:​techtalk:​evo:​engctl:​ignitionsystem-98-03-smodel.jpg?​400|}} | {{:​techtalk:​evo:​engctl:​ignitionsystem-04-later.jpg?​400|}}\\ ​{{:​techtalk:​evo:​engctl:​camsensorplate-icm-98-03-a.jpg?​400|}} |
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-===== Aftermarket Ignitions =====+
  
  
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 Turn the keyswitch fully on - Flip the Run/Stop switch to RUN. Turn the keyswitch fully on - Flip the Run/Stop switch to RUN.
  
-Now, __very briefly__, touch the grounded jumper wire to Pin#6 of Cable Connector 10B (the connector on the cable, not on the ICM itself) - By briefly touching that pin, you will charge the coil for the FRONT sparkplug and it should fire a spark when you remove the jumper wire from Pin#6.+Now, __very briefly__, touch the grounded jumper wire to Pin#6 of Cable Connector 10B (the connector on the cable, not on the ICM itself) - By briefly touching that pin, you will charge the coil for the FRONT sparkplug and it should fire a spark on the spare plug when you remove the jumper wire from Pin#6.
  
-Remove the front spark plug cable. With the spare spark plug grounded to the fins, connect your rear spark plug cable to the spare plug.+Remove the front spark plug cable from the spare plug. Connect ​the rear spark plug cable to the spare plug and be sure spare plug is grounded to the fins.
  
-Now __briefly__ touch the grounded jumper wire to Pin#7 of Cable Connector 10B - This will energize the coil for the REAR plug and when the jumper wire is removed that coil should fire the rear spark plug.+Now __briefly__ touch the grounded jumper wire to Pin#7 of Cable Connector 10B - This will energize the coil for the REAR sparkplug ​and when the jumper wire is removed that coil should fire the spare plug thru the rear spark plug cable.
  
 This not only tests the coils, but all the wiring from ICM to the Spark Plugs. Power down and put everything back where it belongs. This not only tests the coils, but all the wiring from ICM to the Spark Plugs. Power down and put everything back where it belongs.
  
-If this test fails to produce a spark at each spark plug, and the spark plug wires and spark plugs are functional, then the coil itself is suspect. A (temporary) replacement coil should be utilized and the test performed again.+If this test fails to produce a strong, bright ​spark at each spark plug, and the spark plug wires and spark plugs are functional, then the coil itself is suspect. A (temporary) replacement coil should be utilized and the test performed again.
  
 **2007-2013** With the implementation of the Eletronic Fuel Injection Ignition System, there is now a System Relay. The Engine Control Module (ECM) is located under the seat. **2007-2013** With the implementation of the Eletronic Fuel Injection Ignition System, there is now a System Relay. The Engine Control Module (ECM) is located under the seat.
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       * The VOES has two connections and one adjusting screw. The VOES is connected to the carb (manifold side) through a vacuum hose and monitors the manifold vacuum level. It is also connected to the ICM. It has two black wires from the internal switch. From the inline connector, there is a (purple or purple/​white) single wire sent to the ICM and a second wire sent to ground. The VOES switching point is set by a concealed screw. This causes the ICM to switch between the two advance curves based on a set point level of manifold vacuum.       * The VOES has two connections and one adjusting screw. The VOES is connected to the carb (manifold side) through a vacuum hose and monitors the manifold vacuum level. It is also connected to the ICM. It has two black wires from the internal switch. From the inline connector, there is a (purple or purple/​white) single wire sent to the ICM and a second wire sent to ground. The VOES switching point is set by a concealed screw. This causes the ICM to switch between the two advance curves based on a set point level of manifold vacuum.
       * The adjusting screw is inside a sealed opening on the VOES. You must dig out the silicone sealing compound in order to make any adjustments. Remember - When testing your adjustments,​ you must also seal that opening with your thumb (or other air-tight sealing compound or tape) in order to prevent air leakage through the screw adjuster cavity.       * The adjusting screw is inside a sealed opening on the VOES. You must dig out the silicone sealing compound in order to make any adjustments. Remember - When testing your adjustments,​ you must also seal that opening with your thumb (or other air-tight sealing compound or tape) in order to prevent air leakage through the screw adjuster cavity.
-      * The only function of the VOES is to switch between the two advance curves that are programed into the ICM. Different ignition modules have different curves. Those curves have anywhere from 5 to 18 degrees difference in the advance settings between them. But that's another discussion.+      * The only function of the VOES is to switch between the two advance curves that are programed into the ICM. Different ignition modules have different ​set of 2 curves. Those two curves have anywhere from 5 to 18 degrees difference in the advance settings between them. But that's another discussion.
       * The manifold vacuum directly controls the VOES, but the throttle position (and/or it's aggressive changes) indirectly alters the VOES (thru changes in the manifold vacuum) by altering the carburetor throttle plate.       * The manifold vacuum directly controls the VOES, but the throttle position (and/or it's aggressive changes) indirectly alters the VOES (thru changes in the manifold vacuum) by altering the carburetor throttle plate.
       * When the engine is running at idle, when lightly accelerating or when using a steady cruise throttle, manifold vacuum is high (the throttle plate is mostly closed) and the VOES switch is ON, causing the ICM to use the MORE ADVANCED CURVE.       * When the engine is running at idle, when lightly accelerating or when using a steady cruise throttle, manifold vacuum is high (the throttle plate is mostly closed) and the VOES switch is ON, causing the ICM to use the MORE ADVANCED CURVE.
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   * Ignition timing is when the spark takes place - specifically as the piston is traveling UP on the COMPRESSION stroke (compressing the gasses so that you get the most out of the explosion/​ignition). ((Moved On / My Own Choice http://​xlforum.net/​forums/​showthread.php?​t=278587&​highlight=map+sensor&​page=2))   * Ignition timing is when the spark takes place - specifically as the piston is traveling UP on the COMPRESSION stroke (compressing the gasses so that you get the most out of the explosion/​ignition). ((Moved On / My Own Choice http://​xlforum.net/​forums/​showthread.php?​t=278587&​highlight=map+sensor&​page=2))
-  * Top Dead Center is when the piston is at the VERY top of its travel, in the center of it's dwell area, and is usually referenced to mean on TDC of the COMPRESSION stroke (with the valves closed and the mixture compressed),​ though the piston will also be at TDC on the Exhaust stroke when the flywheel turns one complete rotation in either direction from TDC of compression. ((Moved On / My Own Choice http://​xlforum.net/​forums/​showthread.php?​t=278587&​highlight=map+sensor&​page=2)) So, the piston will be at TDC twice per 1 full revolution of the cams. Timing is measured (and set) from TDC on the compression stroke. ​See more on [[techtalk:​ref:​svcproc22#​reftroubleshooting_-_engine_-_05|Finding TDC on Compression Stroke]] in the Sportsterpedia. +  * Top Dead Center is when the piston is at the VERY top of its travel, in the center of it's dwell area, and is usually referenced to mean on TDC of the COMPRESSION stroke (with the valves closed and the mixture compressed),​ though the piston will also be at TDC on the Exhaust stroke when the flywheel turns one complete rotation in either direction from TDC of compression. ((Moved On / My Own Choice http://​xlforum.net/​forums/​showthread.php?​t=278587&​highlight=map+sensor&​page=2)) So, the piston will be at TDC twice per 1 full revolution of the cams. Timing is measured (and set) from TDC on the compression stroke. ​Check below for the images of cam notch on timing rotor position relative to TDC Compression or see more on [[techtalk:​ref:​svcproc22#​reftroubleshooting_-_engine_-_05|Finding TDC on Compression Stroke]] in the Sportsterpedia. 
-  * Spark ADVANCE - is how soon, BEFORE the piston reaches top dead center (or how late - AFTER top dead center) that the spark plug fires to start burning the mixture. The faster the motor is turning, the sooner you need to start the ignition (more advanced it needs to be) so that power of the expanding gasses starts pushing on that piston as soon as it starts moving downward and pushes as long as will be beneficial. ((Moved On / My Own Choice http://​xlforum.net/​forums/​showthread.php?​t=278587&​highlight=map+sensor&​page=2))+  * Spark ADVANCE - is how soon, BEFORE the piston reaches top dead center (all proper timing is BEFORE TDC) that the spark plug fires to start burning the mixture. The faster the motor is turning, the sooner you need to start the ignition (more advanced it needs to be) so that the power of the expanding gasses starts pushing on that piston as soon as it starts moving downward and pushes as long as will be beneficial. ((Moved On / My Own Choice http://​xlforum.net/​forums/​showthread.php?​t=278587&​highlight=map+sensor&​page=2))
     * Ignite it too soon, and the gasses start pushing down as the piston is still coming up (spark knock, pinging etc). ((Moved On / My Own Choice http://​xlforum.net/​forums/​showthread.php?​t=278587&​highlight=map+sensor&​page=2))     * Ignite it too soon, and the gasses start pushing down as the piston is still coming up (spark knock, pinging etc). ((Moved On / My Own Choice http://​xlforum.net/​forums/​showthread.php?​t=278587&​highlight=map+sensor&​page=2))
     * Ignite it too late, and you loose a lot of the power of the gases, since the piston will reach bottom before the gasses finish expanding. ((Moved On / My Own Choice http://​xlforum.net/​forums/​showthread.php?​t=278587&​highlight=map+sensor&​page=2))     * Ignite it too late, and you loose a lot of the power of the gases, since the piston will reach bottom before the gasses finish expanding. ((Moved On / My Own Choice http://​xlforum.net/​forums/​showthread.php?​t=278587&​highlight=map+sensor&​page=2))
  
-     ^  0°=TDC ​ ^  20°BTDC Adv  ^  40°BTDC Adv  ^ Timing Hole  ​^          | +Year ^  0°=TDC\\ Timing Mark  ​^ ​ 20°BTDC Adv\\ Timing Mark  ​^ ​ 40°BTDC Adv\\ Timing Mark  ​^ ​ Timing Hole\\ on Engine ​ ​^  ​Notes  |
-^ Year ^ Timing Mark ^ Timing Mark ^ Timing Mark ^  ​Lt/Rt        ^  Notes   |+
 | 1986-90 | Vertical Line | Single Dot |  None  |  Left Side  | Approx. 1000rpm=20°Adv - Using Timing Light - Look for Single Dot - 4sp Trans| | 1986-90 | Vertical Line | Single Dot |  None  |  Left Side  | Approx. 1000rpm=20°Adv - Using Timing Light - Look for Single Dot - 4sp Trans|
 | 1991-95 | Vertical Line | Single Dot |  None  |  Right Side  | Approx. 1000rpm=20°Adv - Using Timing Light - Look for Single Dot - 5sp Trans| | 1991-95 | Vertical Line | Single Dot |  None  |  Right Side  | Approx. 1000rpm=20°Adv - Using Timing Light - Look for Single Dot - 5sp Trans|
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 | 2000-03 | Vertical Line | Double Dots |  Some-SingleDot ​ |  Right Side  | Approx. 1000rpm=20°Adv - Using Timing Light - Look for Double Dots - Press Fit Flywheel | | 2000-03 | Vertical Line | Double Dots |  Some-SingleDot ​ |  Right Side  | Approx. 1000rpm=20°Adv - Using Timing Light - Look for Double Dots - Press Fit Flywheel |
 |  The Timing Hole Plug (HD P/N 720) can be removed with a 3/8" Allen Hex Key - It has 5/8-18 threads ​ |||||| |  The Timing Hole Plug (HD P/N 720) can be removed with a 3/8" Allen Hex Key - It has 5/8-18 threads ​ ||||||
 +|  Some 1996-2003 flywheels have a Single Dot to indicate 40° BTDC when engine rpm is ~3500 rpms  ||||||
 | 2004-later | **No Timing Hole or Timing Marks on Flywheel** - Base Timing is set in programmable Engine Control Module using CKP Sensor at Flywheel Teeth ||||| | 2004-later | **No Timing Hole or Timing Marks on Flywheel** - Base Timing is set in programmable Engine Control Module using CKP Sensor at Flywheel Teeth |||||
  
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 The timing marks on the flywheel can be seen thru the timing hole, which is situated on the left or right side of the engine, on the crankcase just below the cylinders. The timing hole plug can be removed with a 3/8" Allen Hex Key. Removing the Timing Hole Plug allows you to find the timing marks by peering into the hole. Use the clear timing plug when doing a dynamic setting of the timimg with a timing light flashing into the clear plug to highlight the marks on the flywheel. The timing marks on the flywheel can be seen thru the timing hole, which is situated on the left or right side of the engine, on the crankcase just below the cylinders. The timing hole plug can be removed with a 3/8" Allen Hex Key. Removing the Timing Hole Plug allows you to find the timing marks by peering into the hole. Use the clear timing plug when doing a dynamic setting of the timimg with a timing light flashing into the clear plug to highlight the marks on the flywheel.
  
-The Nosecone Ignition unit (98-03 not-S) can be **statically** timed (without the engine running) using the built-in LED. The procedure is to manually rotate the engine (bike on lift, 5th gear, rotate rear tire to rotate engine) to position the engine to TDC (front cylinder compression stroke) using the timing hole to look for & center the vertical line. Then, turn the ICM/Cam Sensor Plate slightly clockwise & counterclockwise to find the exact spot where the light switches between on & off - Lock down the plate.((aswracing comments http://​xlforum.net/​forums/​showthread.php?​t=1662422))+The Nosecone Ignition unit (98-03 not-S) can be **statically** timed (without the engine running) using the built-in LED. The procedure is to manually rotate the engine (bike on lift, 5th gear, rotate rear tire to rotate engine) to position the engine to TDC (front cylinder compression stroke) using the timing hole to look for & center the vertical line. Then, turn the ICM/Cam Sensor Plate slightly clockwise & counterclockwise to find the exact spot where the light switches between on & off - Lock down the plate.((aswracing comments http://​xlforum.net/​forums/​showthread.php?​t=1662422)) ​In this way, the ignition module is synchronized to the engine (TDC) so that it can effectively calculate the proper time to fire the spark plug BEFORE TDC.
  
 To set the timing **dynamically**,​ first, remove the timing plug & install the clear timing hole viewer plug (It MUST NOT touch the flywheel). Connect the clamp of an inductive pickup timing light (powered by the battery) to the front spark plug wire. This will allow you to 'shoot the light' into/thru the clear viewer plug. Then start the engine, set the idle at 1000rpms & shoot the light into the timing hole. Move the timing plate so that the 20° advance timing mark shows up in the center of the timing hole. To set the timing **dynamically**,​ first, remove the timing plug & install the clear timing hole viewer plug (It MUST NOT touch the flywheel). Connect the clamp of an inductive pickup timing light (powered by the battery) to the front spark plug wire. This will allow you to 'shoot the light' into/thru the clear viewer plug. Then start the engine, set the idle at 1000rpms & shoot the light into the timing hole. Move the timing plate so that the 20° advance timing mark shows up in the center of the timing hole.
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 {{:​techtalk:​evo:​engctl:​camsensorplate.jpg?​400|}} {{:​techtalk:​evo:​engctl:​camsensorplate.jpg?​400|}}
  
-**Moving the Cam Sensor Plate Clockwise (CW) will increase the Advance Before TDC. Moving the plate Counterclockwise (CCW) will retard (or reduce) the Advance Before TDC. Note that each timing mark on the plate (long-to-short) is equal to changing the ignition timing by 5°. Move the plate __VERY LITTLE__ to make adjustments.** ((aswracing post#17 at http://​xlforum.net/​forums/​showthread.php?​t=488663))+**Moving the Cam Sensor Plate Clockwise (CW) will increase the Advance Before TDC. Moving the plate Counterclockwise (CCW) will retard (or reduce) the Advance Before TDC. TAKE NOTE that each timing mark on the plate (long-to-short) is equal to changing the ignition timing by 5°. Move the plate __VERY LITTLE__ to make adjustments.** ((aswracing post#17 at http://​xlforum.net/​forums/​showthread.php?​t=488663))
  
 The Cam Sensor Plate can be rotated slightly to accomodate getting the timing mark in the center of the timing hole. You can also move the plate to change the base timing (thus moving the whole curve sets up or down in rpm range) by setting the 1000rpm timing to a few degrees more or less than the specified (20° BTDC) advance timing mark. The Cam Sensor Plate can be rotated slightly to accomodate getting the timing mark in the center of the timing hole. You can also move the plate to change the base timing (thus moving the whole curve sets up or down in rpm range) by setting the 1000rpm timing to a few degrees more or less than the specified (20° BTDC) advance timing mark.