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techtalk:ih:oil03 [2020/05/11 21:04]
hippysmack [Oil Pump Cycle]
techtalk:ih:oil03 [2021/02/23 04:07] (current)
hippysmack [Pump Changes / Features]
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     * [[techtalk:​ih:​oil03f|57-76 Oil Pump - Individual Parts and Pics]]     * [[techtalk:​ih:​oil03f|57-76 Oil Pump - Individual Parts and Pics]]
     * [[techtalk:​ih:​oil03g|57-76 Oil Pump - Damage and Repair]]     * [[techtalk:​ih:​oil03g|57-76 Oil Pump - Damage and Repair]]
 +    * [[techtalk:​ih:​oil03i|57-76 Oil Pump - Assembly]]
   * **77-85 Oil Pump**: \\   * **77-85 Oil Pump**: \\
     * [[techtalk:​ih:​oil03d|77-85 Oil Pump - Parts Lists and Upgrades]]     * [[techtalk:​ih:​oil03d|77-85 Oil Pump - Parts Lists and Upgrades]]
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     * [[techtalk:​ref:​oil06|Comparing the 77 Style Oil Pump to Newer Pumps]]     * [[techtalk:​ref:​oil06|Comparing the 77 Style Oil Pump to Newer Pumps]]
  
 +====== Oil Pump Function ======
  
-===== Production ​Oil Pumps =====+The oil pump is a positive displacement unit. \\ 
 +If you block the discharge flow path, discharge pressure will rise and literally approaches infinity until something fails. ((BuckIRyder of the XLFORUM http://​xlforum.net/​forums/​showthread.php?​t=730325&​page=2)) \\ 
 +It's non-regulated and delivers its entire volume of oil under pressure to the oil filter mount. \\ 
 +However, don't take the term "​positive displacement pump" literally. ((Dr Dick of the XLFORUM http://​xlforum.net/​forums/​showthread.php?​t=1429178&​page=2)) \\ 
 +Compared to a centrifigal pump, gear / gerotor type pumps use displacement to function. \\ 
 +How positive it is depends on what it's pumping. \\ 
 + 
 +The most '​positive'​ pump on our bikes may be the master cyl for the disc brakes. \\ 
 +You pull the lever and it pumps real good, positive, unless there is air in the system. \\ 
 +Then you still get the displacement but not the pressure because liquid is not compressable but air is. \\ 
 + 
 +Gear / gerotor type pumps work by filling the spaces between the teeth with whatever it is that is being pumped (oil in our case). \\ 
 +The oil in the tooth spaces gets squezed out of the spaces when the gear teeth mesh together (because a tooth is now in that space. \\ 
 +But there is still a little space left at full mesh. \\ 
 +Gearotor pumps have a smaller space at full mesh than gear pumps. \\ 
 + 
 +Now when the mesh breaks, a void is created. Oil gets sucked into that void. \\ 
 +Now what if air is in the spaces instead of oil? \\ 
 +It gets sqeezed out also unless there is pressure (restriction) in the curcuit its trying to flow into. \\ 
 +In that case, some air stays in the spaces and gets compressed in the small space remaining as the teeth mesh. \\ 
 +When the teeth unmesh, air expands (refilling void that should be getting oil sucked into it. \\ 
 +The pump can't make enough pressure to overcome the exit restriction. \\ 
 +Then there is no flow and no ability to reprime itself since. \\ 
 +(it's not making enough suction due to the expansion of the compressed air refilling the void that the oil should be filling) \\ 
 + 
 +Eventually the pressure in the return line gets released. \\ 
 +While this is happening oil is building up in the pickup sump and waiting for the return side to come back online. \\ 
 +The supply pump is still pumping while the return is toggling from air locked to primed and pumping. \\ 
 + 
 +Think about what state the return oil is in as it collects in the return pickup cavity. It's just been thru a 60 cycle blender. \\ 
 +Our bikes live with that every mile they travel with lots of air whipped into every drop of return oil. \\ 
 +Restrictions in the return side of the pump will lead to a more sustained oil level in the crankcase sump. \\ 
 +(large enough to reduce outflow from the engine to a volume less than the supply pump is feeding the engine) \\ 
 + 
 +This is a condition known as wetsumping. \\ 
 +Read more about [[techtalk:​ref:​oil10|wetsumping]] in the REF section of the Sportsterpedia. \\ 
 + 
 +====== Oil Pump Pressure (57-85) ====== 
 +See also [[techtalk:​ref:​oil15|Installing an Oil Pressure Gauge]] in the REF section of the Sportsterpedia. \\ 
 + 
 +Engine oil pressure was measured (by the MoCo) with a pressure gauge at the oil pump. \\  
 +Expected oil pump pressure per FSM's: \\ 
 + 
 +**Gauge mounted at oil pump**: \\ 
 + 
 +As checked with hot oil and a gauge at the oil pressure switch location at the oil pump. \\ 
 +The oil pressure switch has to be removed for the gauge to be installed. \\ 
 + 
 +**1957-1969**:​ ((1959-1969 HD FSM pgs 3A-11, 3A-15)) \\ 
 +Minimum: 3-7 psi (idle, with spark retarded) \\ 
 +Normal riding conditions: 10-14 psi (6 psi at 20 mph) \\ 
 + 
 +**1970-1978**:​ ((HD 70-78 FSM pgs 3-1, 3-5)) \\ 
 +Minimum: 3-7 psi (idle) \\ 
 +Maximum: 15 psi (60 mph in high gear) \\ 
 +Normal riding conditions: 4-15 psi 
 + 
 +**1979-1985**:​ ((1979-1985 HD FSM pgs 3-1, 3-10)) \\ 
 +Minimum: 4-7 psi (idle) \\ 
 +Maximum: 10-20 psi (3500 rpm) \\ 
 +Normal riding conditions: 4-15 psi \\ 
 + 
 +**Note**: On a cold startup, expect pressure to reach ~60 psi ((IronMick of the XLFORUM http://​xlforum.net/​forums/​showthread.php?​t=1456449)) \\ 
 + 
 +{{:​techtalk:​ih:​oil:​oil_pressure_gauge_1_by_dieselox4.jpg?​direct&​300|}} ((photo by Dieselox4 of the XLFORUM http://​xlforum.net/​forums/​showthread.php?​t=1456449)) {{:​techtalk:​ih:​oil:​oil_pressure_gauge_2_by_dieselox4.jpg?​direct&​300|}} ((photo by Dieselox4 of the XLFORUM http://​xlforum.net/​forums/​showthread.php?​t=1456449)) 
 + 
 +====== Priming the Oil Pump ====== 
 +A dry pump won't pump oil. \\ 
 +It will '​cavitate'​ when their is not a hydraulic seal between the gerotors and the inlet hose from the tank. \\ 
 + 
 +Any time you have removed the oil pump or the removed / drained the feed hose from the oil tank, the pump needs to be primed. \\ 
 +  * The oil pump needs to be primed with oil / lube before it can transfer oil from the inlet to the outlet cavity inside. 
 +    * Prime the oil pump per the FSM; 
 +      * Upon removal / inspection, oil the pump internals. 
 +      * Remove the oil pressure switch and rotate the engine until oil comes out the end of the pump and reinstall the switch. 
 +    * If you let it sit long enough, oil will gravity drain inside the pump and prime it. 
 +    * Another way to prime the pump is to use assembly lube on the gerotors and inside of the pump before installing it. ((aswracing of the XLFORUM http://​xlforum.net/​forums/​showthread.php?​p=4805186#​post4805186)) \\ Then you have an instant hydraulic seal to help the oil pump suck oil from the hose. 
 +    * You can also using a large syringe with a tapered tip inserted into the oil supply hose on the bottom of the oil tank. ((ericfreeman of the XLFORUM http://​xlforum.net/​forums/​showthread.php?​p=5751479#​post5751479)) \\ Then you can force feed oil the pump and on to the engine using this technique and it avoids having to mess with the sending unit. 
 +    * With this homemade tool, all you have to do is use a grease gun (without grease) filled with oil and pump it into the system so a dry start can be avoided. {{:​techtalk:​ref:​tools:​check_ball_tester_and_prelube_fitting_by_bustert.jpg?​direct&​300|}} ((photo by bustert of the XLFORUM http://​xlforum.net/​forums/​showthread.php?​t=1813185&​page=2)) 
 + 
 +====== 1957-1976 Gear Driven ​Pumps =====
 + 
 +===== Oil Pump Cycle ===== 
 + 
 +  * The separate oil feed and scavenger (oil return) pumps are gear-type pumps and are incorporated in the same pump housing with a check valve on the oil feed side. The feed section is gravity fed from the oil tank and forced fed from the pump to the engine and back to the scavenger side of the pump which returns oil back to the oil tank. ((1970-1978 HD XL/​XLH/​XLCH/​XLT 1000 FSM)) 
 +  * In a gear type oil pump, the oil is transferred from the inlet to the outlet side of the pump when it is trapped between the rotating gear teeth and the gear housing.  
 +  * The oil pump seldom needs servicing. Therefore, before dis-assembling it for repairs because of no oil pressure, be absolutely certain that all possible related malfunctions have been eliminated. ((1970-1978 HD XL/​XLH/​XLCH/​XLT 1000 FSM))  
 +    * If oil in oil tank is diluted, pressure will be affected. 
 +    * In freezing weather, the oil feed line may clog up with ice or sludge, preventing circulation. 
 +    * Inspect oil pump check valve as it prevents the gravity flow of oil into the crankcase when the engine is not running and provides the correct oil pressure for the operation of the oil signal light switch. If the check valve is not seating properly, oil will bypass the valve and drain oil from the oil tank into the crankcase and upon starting the engine, a considerable amount of oil will be blown out the crankcase breather pipe. 
 +    * Check for a grounded oil pressure switch wire or a faulty switch if oil indicator light fails to go out with the engine running. 
 +    * If no oil pressure or return oil is not indicated at the oil tank, when engine is running, or an excess amount of oil is blown from the breather pipe, dis-assemble the oil pump for repair. Damage can occur by way of a foreign object lodged in the oil pump gearing. Check your FSM for dis-assembly and repair. ((1970-1978 HD XL/​XLH/​XLCH/​XLT 1000 FSM))   
 +\\ 
 + 
 +===== Pump Changes / Features ===== 
 +|  Oil Pump Assemblies (per parts catalogs) ||| 
 +|  Pump #  |Body Casting#​| ​ Year Model  || 
 +|26203-52C| ​ |1957-1958|XL,​ XLH, XLCH| 
 +|26203-52D| ​ |1959-E1962|XL,​ XLH, XLCH| 
 +|26203-52E| ​ |L1962-1966|XL,​ XLH, XLCH| 
 +|:::​|:::​|1967-1971|XLCH| 
 +|26204-67|26215-72|1967-1971|XLH| 
 +|:::​|:::​|1970-1971|XLCH| 
 +|26204-67A|26215-72|1972-1976|XLH,​ XLCH|
  
   * There are 3 basic pumps & 2 basic plumbing styles ((Dr Dick of the XLFORUM http://​xlforum.net/​forums/​showpost.php?​p=3272806&​postcount=204))   * There are 3 basic pumps & 2 basic plumbing styles ((Dr Dick of the XLFORUM http://​xlforum.net/​forums/​showpost.php?​p=3272806&​postcount=204))
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   - Scavenge gear set and drive key and retaining clip.   - Scavenge gear set and drive key and retaining clip.
  
 +====== XR-750 Oil Pumps (only) ======
  
-====== XR-750 Oil Pumps (only) ====== 
   * From 1972 to 1989, the gear driven oil pump went through several changes.   * From 1972 to 1989, the gear driven oil pump went through several changes.
   * The main body and design stayed the same. (as in the ball check valve assembly and seals) ((1972-2003 HD XR-750 Service Manual pg 27))   * The main body and design stayed the same. (as in the ball check valve assembly and seals) ((1972-2003 HD XR-750 Service Manual pg 27))
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       * The oil pump speeds were doubled to 1/2 of engine speed for the feed pump and a 4:1 ratio on the return side.       * The oil pump speeds were doubled to 1/2 of engine speed for the feed pump and a 4:1 ratio on the return side.
       * The oil pump drive gear was re-activated as a breather only. ((1972-2003 HD XR-750 Service Manual pg 27))       * The oil pump drive gear was re-activated as a breather only. ((1972-2003 HD XR-750 Service Manual pg 27))
- 
-====== Oil Pump Pressure (57-85) ====== 
-Engine oil pressure was measured (by the MoCo) with a pressure gauge at the oil pump. \\  
-Expected oil pump pressure per FSM's: \\ 
- 
-**Gauge mounted at oil pump**: \\ 
- 
-As checked with hot oil and a gauge at the oil pressure switch location at the oil pump. \\ 
-The oil pressure switch has to be removed for the gauge to be installed. \\ 
- 
-**1957-1969**:​ ((1959-1969 HD FSM pgs 3A-11, 3A-15)) \\ 
-Minimum: 3-7 psi (idle, with spark retarded) \\ 
-Normal riding conditions: 10-14 psi (6 psi at 20 mph) \\ 
- 
-**1970-1978**:​ ((HD 70-78 FSM pgs 3-1, 3-5)) \\ 
-Minimum: 3-7 psi (idle) \\ 
-Maximum: 15 psi (60 mph in high gear) \\ 
-Normal riding conditions: 4-15 psi 
- 
-**1979-1985**:​ ((1979-1985 HD FSM pgs 3-1, 3-10)) \\ 
-Minimum: 4-7 psi (idle) \\ 
-Maximum: 10-20 psi (3500 rpm) \\ 
-Normal riding conditions: 4-15 psi \\ 
- 
-**Note**: On a cold startup, expect pressure to reach ~60 psi ((IronMick of the XLFORUM http://​xlforum.net/​forums/​showthread.php?​t=1456449)) \\ 
- 
- 
-{{:​techtalk:​ih:​oil:​oil_pressure_gauge_1_by_dieselox4.jpg?​direct&​300|}} ((photo by Dieselox4 of the XLFORUM http://​xlforum.net/​forums/​showthread.php?​t=1456449)) {{:​techtalk:​ih:​oil:​oil_pressure_gauge_2_by_dieselox4.jpg?​direct&​300|}} ((photo by Dieselox4 of the XLFORUM http://​xlforum.net/​forums/​showthread.php?​t=1456449)) 
- 
- 
-====== 1957-1976 Gear Driven Pumps ====== 
- 
-===== Oil Pump Cycle ===== 
- 
-  * The separate oil feed and scavenger (oil return) pumps are gear-type pumps and are incorporated in the same pump housing with a check valve on the oil feed side. The feed section is gravity fed from the oil tank and forced fed from the pump to the engine and back to the scavenger side of the pump which returns oil back to the oil tank. ((1970-1978 HD XL/​XLH/​XLCH/​XLT 1000 FSM)) 
-  * In a gear type oil pump, the oil is transferred from the inlet to the outlet side of the pump when it is trapped between the rotating gear teeth and the gear housing. ​ 
-  * The oil pump seldom needs servicing. Therefore, before dis-assembling it for repairs because of no oil pressure, be absolutely certain that all possible related malfunctions have been eliminated. ((1970-1978 HD XL/​XLH/​XLCH/​XLT 1000 FSM))  
-    * If oil in oil tank is diluted, pressure will be affected. 
-    * In freezing weather, the oil feed line may clog up with ice or sludge, preventing circulation. 
-    * Inspect oil pump check valve as it prevents the gravity flow of oil into the crankcase when the engine is not running and provides the correct oil pressure for the operation of the oil signal light switch. If the check valve is not seating properly, oil will bypass the valve and drain oil from the oil tank into the crankcase and upon starting the engine, a considerable amount of oil will be blown out the crankcase breather pipe. 
-    * Check for a grounded oil pressure switch wire or a faulty switch if oil indicator light fails to go out with the engine running. 
-    * If no oil pressure or return oil is not indicated at the oil tank, when engine is running, or an excess amount of oil is blown from the breather pipe, dis-assemble the oil pump for repair. Damage can occur by way of a foreign object lodged in the oil pump gearing. Check your FSM for dis-assembly and repair. ((1970-1978 HD XL/​XLH/​XLCH/​XLT 1000 FSM))  ​ 
-\\ 
  
 ====== 1977-1985 Gerotor Driven Pumps ====== ====== 1977-1985 Gerotor Driven Pumps ======
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 {{:​techtalk:​evo:​oil:​oil_pressure_switch_threads_by_hippysmack.png?​direct&​300|}} ((drawing by Hippysmack)) \\ {{:​techtalk:​evo:​oil:​oil_pressure_switch_threads_by_hippysmack.png?​direct&​300|}} ((drawing by Hippysmack)) \\
-===== Production Oil Pumps ===== +===== Pump Changes / Features ​===== 
 +See the link in the sub documents above for 77-85 Oil Pump - Parts Lists and Upgrades. \\
   * There are 2 basic pumps:   * There are 2 basic pumps:
     - 77-E83 (4 versions)     - 77-E83 (4 versions)
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 |  79 Oil Pump ((photo by Peteroo of the XLFORUM http://​xlforum.net/​forums/​showthread.php?​t=2070085)) ​ ||| |  79 Oil Pump ((photo by Peteroo of the XLFORUM http://​xlforum.net/​forums/​showthread.php?​t=2070085)) ​ |||
  
-====== Priming the Oil Pump ====== 
-A dry pump won't pump oil. \\ 
-It will '​cavitate'​ when their is not a hydraulic seal between the gerotors and the inlet hose from the tank. \\ 
- 
-Any time you have removed the oil pump or the removed / drained the feed hose from the oil tank, the pump needs to be primed. \\ 
-  * The oil pump needs to be primed with oil / lube before it can transfer oil from the inlet to the outlet cavity inside. 
-    * Prime the oil pump per the FSM; 
-      * Upon removal / inspection, oil the pump internals. 
-      * Remove the oil pressure switch and rotate the engine until oil comes out the end of the pump and reinstall the switch. 
-    * If you let it sit long enough, oil will gravity drain inside the pump and prime it. 
-    * Another way to prime the pump is to use assembly lube on the gerotors and inside of the pump before installing it. ((aswracing of the XLFORUM http://​xlforum.net/​forums/​showthread.php?​p=4805186#​post4805186)) \\ Then you have an instant hydraulic seal to help the oil pump suck oil from the hose. 
-    * You can also using a large syringe with a tapered tip inserted into the oil supply hose on the bottom of the oil tank. ((ericfreeman of the XLFORUM http://​xlforum.net/​forums/​showthread.php?​p=5751479#​post5751479)) \\ Then you can force feed oil the pump and on to the engine using this technique and it avoids having to mess with the sending unit. 
-    * With this homemade tool, all you have to do is use a grease gun (without grease) filled with oil and pump it into the system so a dry start can be avoided. {{:​techtalk:​ref:​tools:​check_ball_tester_and_prelube_fitting_by_bustert.jpg?​direct&​300|}} ((photo by bustert of the XLFORUM http://​xlforum.net/​forums/​showthread.php?​t=1813185&​page=2))