EVO: Electrical System

The REFERENCE section has a listing of - Device Connector Pinouts:

Sub-Documents

SWITCHES

Key Switch

The Key Switch is fed from the main Circuit Breaker, later, the MaxiFuse. Typically, this feed wire is RED. The Key Switch has two positions (besides OFF), but their function changed in 1994.

Before 1994, there was a RUN position & a LIGHTS position, which harkened back to a time when the lights could be off for starting but then on or off as required. But sometime in the late 70's, the MoCo began putting a shorting wire across both output connections of the Key Switch. This means all the circuit breakers are powered whenever the Key Switch is ON, so that the lights are guaranteed to be on.

In 1994, the MoCo rearranged the circuit breaker connections and removed the Key Switch jumper on the output connections. Now, the Key Switch had an ACCESSORY position and a RUN position. This allowed the 4-way flashers to function on the Accessories Circuit without the rest of the circuits being powered.

In 1995, the location of the keyswitch was moved from the side engine mount (between the two cylinders) to a location next to the ignition coil, under the front right side of the fuel tank. The switch function did not change, but it was implemented with a new switch housing, new coil bracket & the physical switch design was different.

With the 2014 models, the older power switching key switch was replaced when the CANbus control was implemented using the Body Control Module (BCM). Most switches were now simply inputs to the BCM. This is true of the key switch.

The CANbus Key Switch has three positions - OFF, ACC & IGN - There are only two wires used for the three functions. When OFF, the two wires have no connection. When in ACC Mode, the two wires are connected by an 800 ohm resistor, which provides a HI signal to the BCM. When in IGN Mode, the two wires are connected by a 200 ohm resistor, which provides a LO signal to the BCM. In this way, the BCM can determine the switch mode and implement the appropriate control of the various circuits.

Testing the Key Switch

Key Switches can fail and become intermittent. The internal contacts can be severely strained if you have a keyring with too many extra keys or other heavy items, or items that flap in the wind.

Since the Key Switch sends power to the Fuses (or the Circuit Breakers - CBs), you can test the reliability of the Key Switch contacts by pulling the fuses (or disconnecting the CBs) and checking for incoming power.

On pre-1994 models, you can check the incoming power on the Ignition CB and on the Lights CB. Wiggle the Key Switch while monitoring the voltage to see whether the power is intermittent or reliably constant.

On 1994-2013 models, you can pull the fuses (or disconnect the Circuit Breakers) and check the incoming power on the Ignition Fuse/CB and on the Accessory Fuse/CB. Wiggle the Key Switch while monitoring the voltage to see whether the power is intermittent or reliably constant.

If the power is intermittent to the Fuses/CBs, in addition to checking the fuse panel and the wiring to it, you'll need to closely examine the Key Switch itself for damaged connections or loose/broken internal parts.

For 2014-later, you can remove the key switch connector (33A/B) and test the resistance (ohms) between the two wires of the key switch connector. When in the OFF position, there should be no conductivity. When the key switch is in ACC Mode then 800 ohms or in IGN Mode then 200 ohms should be read across the two wires of the connector. (See the Reference Section for an example of »» using the older style key switch «« with the new BCM, perhaps for relocation purposes.)

For all key switches, there are no repairable parts so replacement is the only fix.

Current Draw with Key Switch Off

Starting in 2004, the TSM/TSSM/HFSM will continue to draw 16-25 mA for 30 seconds after ignition is turned off. Any disruption and reconnection of battery power, such as disconnecting the battery to place a meter in series, will cause TSM/TSSM/HFSM to draw 16-25 mA for 30 seconds.

There are other devices that draw current even when the Key Switch is OFF. The table measurements below are taken after a 1-minute connection has been established.

  1. Disconnect battery negative cable at motor/crankcase/trans, then connect ammeter
    between the negative battery cable and its previous connection. With this arrangement,
    you will also pick up any regulator drain.
  2. With ignition switch turned to OFF and all lights and accessories off, observe the current reading.
    1. Add up all the devices in the table below according to what you have & their current setting.
      If that sum is greater than the reading observed on the ammeter, current draw is within limits.
    2. An ammeter reading higher than the sum of the table values indicates excessive current draw.
    3. Any accessories must be considered and checked for excessive drain.
Maximum Meter Reading (Averaged in Milliamperes):
Voltage regulator 0.5ma 1.0ma 2008-later
Speedometer 0.5ma 1.0ma 2008-later
Tachometer (if equipped) 0.5ma 1.0ma 2008-later
TSM (non-security models) 0.5ma 1.0ma 2008-later
TSSM (disarmed) 3.0ma same
TSSM (armed) 3.0ma same
TSSM (storage mode) 0.5ma 1.0ma 2008-later
HFSM 1.0ma same
ECM 1.0ma ECM added, 2010-later
Security siren 20.0ma* same
* Siren will draw for 2-24 hours from time motorcycle battery
is connected and 0.05 milliamperes once siren battery is
charged. For best results, disconnect siren during
milliampere draw test.

A battery with a surface discharge condition could suffer a static drain. Correct by cleaning battery case. 1)


Horn Switch

The Horn Switch provides power to the Horn. Typically, the Horn Switch receives power on an Orange or Orange/White wire and then sends power to the Horn on a Yellow/Black (or all Black) wire. The Horn is grounded locally or thru the harness ground.


Brake Switch - Front & Rear

The Front Brake Switch is installed between the brake lever & the master cylinder assembly. It is a normally closed switch, but the contacts are actually held open when the lever is not being pulled. When the lever is pulled to activate the front brake master cylinder, the brake switch is no longer pressed by the lever, the contacts now close and power is sent to the rear brake light. This switch is often damaged (causing the brake light to stay ON) by not paying close attention to the following caution from the manual regarding disassembly & assembly of the master cylinder or brake lever or right switch housing:

Do not remove or install the master cylinder assembly and do not remove the switch housing assembly without first placing a 5/32in (4mm) thick cardboard insert between the brake lever and lever bracket. Removing the assembly without the insert in place may result in damage to the rubber boot and plunger of the front stoplight switch.

2)

The Rear Brake Switch is installed in the rear brake hydraulic line from the master cylinder to the caliper, typically on the left side ahead of the caliper. It is a hydraulically activated switch, meaning that at a certain level of hydraulic pressure in the brake line, the switch closes to conduct power thru it to the rear brake light. (1986-2019 used the same rear brake switch, P/N 72023-51E. It's possible to also use a NAPA P/N ECH SL147.)3)

The front & rear brake switches are electrically connected in parallel. This means that either switch, when activated, will send power to the brake light (bright) element.

The front & rear brake switches are fed power on the ORANGE/White (ORANGE*) wire from the accessory power circuit (circuit breaker or fuse). When activated, either or both switches will supply power on the RED/Yellow (RED*) wire to the rear brake light (*1986-1993 models used solid color wires).

Beginning in 2014, the electrical function of the front brake switch is incorporated into the CANbus circuit board for the right switch housing (eliminating a separate brake switch there) and the rear brake switch closes an electrical circuit into the Body Control Module (BCM).


INSTRUMENTS


Speedometers

Check how to obtain Diagnostic Troubleshooting Codes in the REF section: REF: General-MSR 08

Check the VSS Sensor section regarding signals to the Speedometer. vss_-_vehicle_speed_sensor


1986-1994 Speedometers

These years used a mechanical speedometer operated by cable from a speedometer pickup attached to the front wheel. The rotation of the wheel was converted to a rotation of the speedometer cable using a worm gear in the pickup.

The odometer readings are stored mechanically in the speedometer.

The speedometers were rated as 2:1 ratio, meaning that for 2000 RPMs of the cable, the speedometer would register 60 MPH. All Sportster model speedometers from 1973-1994 were front wheel driven and used a 2:1 ratio. From 1957-1972, the Sportster speedometers were cable driven from the transmission, but they also used 2:1 ratio speedometers.4)

From 1973-later, the 19“ front wheel meant that the wheel driven unit for driving the 2:1 ratio speedometers all used nearly identical ratios for converting wheel rotation into cable rotation, approximately 1 wheel rotation = 2.625 cable rotations.

Normally, for 1984-1994, the wheel driven unit will be a match to the speedometer - that is, a driven unit intended for 2:1 (67127-84A - which creates a 1:2.625 ratio of wheel-to-cable rotations) is used with a 2:1 speedometer (likewise, the drive unit and speedometer would be matched for 1:1 or 2240:60 on the BT). However, if you use a 21” wheel/tire on a model that original had a 19“ wheel/tire and used a 2:1 ratio speedometer (as stock on all pre-95 XLs), then you need to use a wheel driven unit (FXLR - 67132-85A - that creates a 1:3 wheel-to-cable ratio) which was originally intended for a 2240:60 ratio speedometer. This makes the 2:1 ratio speedometer read close to the right speed. 5)

Both the tire size and the intended speedometer ratio are relevant to selecting the required wheel driven unit to create the right number of cable revolutions for each wheel revolution so that the speedometer accurately displays the speed information.

Just be clear there are TWO TYPES OF CONVERSION RATIOS - One conversion ratio is from wheel to cable (at the driven unit - typically 1:2.625) and there is a separate conversion ratio used at the cable to speedometer (for Sportsters, the Speedometer Ratio is known as 2:1, which is 2000rpm=60mph).


1995-2003 Speedometers

In 1995, HD implemented an electronic speedometer on the Sportster models. It was operated by a signal from the Vehicle Speed Sensor (VSS) which was located on the engine case in order to monitor the rotation of the main shaft 5th gear of the transmission. The VSS signal was powered by and directly connected to the speedometer.

Because the external final drive ratio may vary by model (883 vs 1200), the speedometers are different for different models because they must internally account for the difference in final drive ratios.

The odometer information is stored in the Speedometer.

Speedometer P/N based on Year/Model

Year(s)ModelPart #Notes
1995 883 All 67037-95 W/Harness
1200 All 67283-95 W/Harness
1996 - 1997 883 All 67037-96 W/Harness
1200 All 67283-96 W/Harness
1998 883 All Early 67037-96 W/Harness
883 All Late 67037-98 Connectorized
1200 All 67283-96 W/Harness
1999 - 2003 883 Std/Hug 67037-98 Connectorized
883 Custom 67436-99 Connectorized
1200 All 67283-99 Connectorized

The following chart shows the VSS pulses to produce various speedometer readings. The 1996 change accounts for the High Contact Ratio (HCR) Gears implemented that year. 6)

# of Pulses from VSS in Chart Produces Speed Shown on Speedometer
Year - Model 20mph 40mph 60mph 80mph Notes
1995 - 883 345 687 1026 1361
1200 321 640 955 1268
1996 - 883 439 874 1306 1733 HCR Gears
1200 408 814 1216 1613 HCR Gears


2004-2013 Speedometers

Beginning in 2004, the Vehicle Speed Sensor (VSS) feeds its pulses to the ECM (not directly to the speedometer). The ECM interprets the pulses and sends a digital stream of data, using the Serial Data Bus, to the speedometer & the TSM/TSSM related to the operating speed. The speedometer takes the SDB data and converts it to the necessary impulses to operate the dial needle to show the current speed. The TSM/TSSM uses the data in evaluating when to cancel the turn signal function.

The Speedometer 'marries' to the ECM (when new after 30+ miles) and thereby prevents the speedometer from being moved to another bike or another already-used speedometer being placed on this bike. This is related to preventing turn-back of the mileage reported on the odometer. The odometer information is stored in the speedometer and/or the ECM - Conflicting information - Research continues. 7)8)

See also http://xlforum.net/forums/showpost.php?p=5342448


2004-later - Speedometer WOW Test 9)

Typically, when power is applied and the speedometer turns on, it proceeds through an initialization sequence. It does this every time power is removed and re-applied.

The visible part of this sequence is the check engine lamp, security lamp, backlighting and odometer display. Upon key ON (Run/Off switch set to RUN), the check engine lamp and security lamp will illuminate for four seconds and then (if parameters are normal) will turn off.

As an additional quick check of speedometer function, a “WOW” test can be performed. Press and hold trip odometer reset switch, then turn Ignition Switch ON.

Release trip odometer reset switch. Background lighting should illuminate, gauge needle should sweep its full range of motion, and indicator lamps (check engine, low fuel, battery and security) should illuminate.

If instrument module fails “WOW” test, check for battery, ground, ignition, trip odometer reset switch and accessory wiring to speedometer.


2007-2013 Odometer Options
The odometer provides the following selectable displays:

  • Odometer
  • Trip odometers A and B
  • 12 or 24 hour clock

Pressing the function switch (on back of speedometer) with the ignition switch in any position will activate the odometer reading and time. Time and total mileage or kilometers may be checked without unlocking ignition switch. Press/Release the switch once to view odometer. Press/Release again to display time.

To check mileage on trip odometers, the ignition switch must be in the ACC or IGNITION position. Press/Release the switch until the desired trip reading is displayed. An A or B in the upper left of the display window identifies trip odometers.

To reset or zero trip odometers, display either A or B odometer reading. Press/Hold the button for 2-3 seconds. The displayed trip odometer will be reset to zero.

Odometer Option: Setting the Time

  • Turn the Ignition switch to Accessory or Ignition (With FOB present, set the STOP/RUN switch to RUN)
  • Press and release function switch (on back of speedometer) until time (hour and minutes) is displayed. Press/Hold the function switch until 12HR begins to blink in the speedometer display window. Release the button.
  • Press/Release the function switch once to get time display. Each time you Press/Release, the display will switch between 12HR and 24HR.
  • When the desired time style is displayed, Press/Hold the button for five seconds. The display will switch to the time display with the hours blinking.
  • Press/Release repeatedly to advance the hours. Each time you Press/Release, the display will advance one hour. (NOTE: No AM or PM time setting is required.) When the correct hour is reached, Press/Hold the button to advance to minute setting.
  • Press/Release repeatedly to advance the minutes display. Each time, the display will advance one minute.
  • When the correct minutes are displayed, Press/Hold the button for five seconds.
  • The minutes display will stop blinking, indicating that the clock has been set.
  • Turn off the ignition & the OFF/RUN switch to OFF.


2014-later Speedometers

In 2014-later models, the Vehicle Speed Sensor (VSS) feeds its pulses to the ECM. The ECM interprets the pulses and sends a digital stream of data, using the CANbus, to the speedometer & the TSM/TSSM related to the operating speed. The speedometer takes the CANbus data and converts it to the necessary impulses to operate the dial needle to show the current speed. The TSM/TSSM uses the data in evaluating when to cancel the turn signal function.

The Speedometer 'marries' to the ECM (when new after 30+ miles) and thereby prevents the speedometer from being moved to another bike or another already-used speedometer being placed on this bike. This is related to preventing turn-back of the mileage reported on the odometer. The odometer information is stored in the ECM. 10)


On the 2016-later 1200CX Roadster, the stock speedometer is P/N 70900549. It has a fuel level gauge that is not implemented with the stock low fuel sensor. However, testing by b0fh on the XLForum 11) demonstrated that installing the 61200008A Fuel Level Sensor kit with this speedometer will indeed activate the fuel level gauge. (See the REF electrical section on speedometers)


2014-later Odometer Options
The odometer provides the following selectable displays:

  • Odometer
  • Trip odometers A and B
  • 12/24 hour clock
  • Gear number and tachometer

Pressing the Trip switch (on the left handlebar controls) with the ignition switch in any position will activate the odometer reading and time. Time and total mileage or kilometers may be checked without unlocking ignition switch. Press/Release the switch once to view odometer. Press/Release again to display time.

To check mileage on trip odometers, the ignition switch must be in the ACC or IGNITION position or the FOB must be present with the STOP/RUN switch in the RUN position.

Press/Release the TRIP switch until the desired trip reading is displayed. An A or B in the upper left of the display window identifies trip odometers.

To reset or zero trip odometers, display either A or B odometer reading. Press/Hold the button for 2-3 seconds. The displayed trip odometer will be reset to zero.

Press/Release the Trip switch to select between the various display modes. In the Gear/Tach mode, the odometer shows the current gear (1-5) and the engine speed in revolutions per minute (rpm). When the transmission is in neutral or the clutch lever is pulled in, the gear number is blank.

Odometer Option: Setting the Time

  • Turn the Ignition switch to Accessory or Ignition (With FOB present, set the STOP/RUN switch to RUN)
  • Press/Release the left handlebar TRIP switch to cycle through the odometer display modes until the time is displayed.
  • Press/Hold the TRIP switch until 12h (2) begins to blink. Release the switch.
  • Press/Release the switch once to advance to a blinking time display. Each time you Press/Release, the display switches between 12h and 24h.
  • When the desired time style is displayed, Press/Hold the switch until the hours display blinks.
  • Press/Release repeatedly to advance the hours.
  • When the correct hour is displayed, Press/Hold the switch until the minutes display blinks.
  • Press/Release the switch repeatedly to advance the minutes display.
  • When the correct minutes are displayed, Press/Hold the switch until the display advances to AM or PM. (NOTE: AM or PM does not appear in the regular time display. The motorcycle uses the selection for diagnostic purposes.)
  • In the 12h mode, AM or PM flashes. Select AM or PM by Pressing/Releasing the switch
  • When the preferred setting is displayed, Press/Hold the switch for five seconds to finalize the time settings
  • Turn off the ignition & the OFF/RUN switch to OFF.


VSS/Speedometer Pulse-to-MPH Converter

CLICK HERE to see the REFerence Section regarding compensating for smaller/larger tires or final drive ratios (changes in sprockets).



Speedometer Connectors



_Harness Connector_ - 1994-2003 Sportster - For Electronic Speedometer/Tachometer/Indicator Lights
(These pinouts relate to Connector 20A/B between the instrument harness and the Main harness - not the connector at the instrument.)


12) 13)

Connector 20A/B at Main Harness - Pin numbers 1 thru 12 (& their functions) are the same for both the 12- & 14-Pin Black Connectors.
The extra pins were added in 1998 to accomodate the 1200S model Engine Light.
In later years, the connector reverted back to the 12-pin version.

Connector 20A/B on Main Harness
All Models (See 1200S Exceptions) 1200S Only
Pin# Dev-I/O Color Function Yr/Color/Function
1 S-I O/W 12v Speedo Power (Accy Circ)
2 S-O W/GN Speed Signal Output
3 I-I BN Right TS Indicator
4 I-I W High Beam Indicator
5 I-I V Left TS Indicator
6 T-I O Tach Power
7 T-I PK Tach Signal from Coil
8 I-I TN Neutral Indicator
9 I-I GN/Y Oil Pressure Indicator
10 I-I O 1995-98 Only = Indicator Power 1999-03 - BK/Y - For Ck Eng Lt
11 I-I BK Indicators Ground
12 S-T-I BK Speedo & Tach Ground
The following two pins were only used in Late 1998 Version
13 1998 Only - Not Used
14 1998 Only - Not-S Not Used 1998 ONLY - BK/Y - For Ck Eng Lt
Dev= Speedo/Tach/Indicator



_Instrument Connectors_


Note Regarding 1995-2003 Electronic Speedometer Instrument Connections
When the electronic speedometer was introduced in 1995, the speedometer wiring was direct from the harness wires to the individual indicators or to individual terminal posts on the speedometer or tachometer. But in late 1998, the 883 models got a new version speedometer and tachometer with connectors built into the instruments so that the harness could be terminated with a plug-in compatible connector. From 1999-2003, all models used connectorized instruments.


14)

Late98-03 Sportster Electronic Speedometer Connector Pin Layout

Pin# Color Function
1 BK Trip Function / Reset (to Pin#6)
2 Not Used
3 Not Used
4 BK/Y Ck Eng Lt - Used Only by 1999-2003 1200S
5 Not Used
6 BK Trip Function / Reset (to Pin#1)
7 W/GN Speed Signal Output for TSM Cancel
8 BK Ground
9 W Vehicle Speed Sensor (VSS) Input
10 BK Ground to VSS
11 R 12v Power to VSS
12 O/W 12v Power for Speedo (Accy Circ)



2004-13 Speedometer & Tachometer Connector - Wire Function & Color

15)

2004-13 Speedometer & Tachometer Connector Pinouts
Speedometer (numbers are left to right) . . . . . . . . Tachometer
Pin# - Function - Wire Color Pin# - Function - Wire Color
12 blank 1 ignition o
11 trip switch bk (to 8) 2 data lg/v
10 blank 3 blank
9 blank on '04-'06 ('07-'13 Fuel Low) 4 blank
8 trip switch (to 11) 5 battery bn/gy
7 ground bk 6 accessory o/w
6 accessory o/w 7 ground bk
5 battery bn/gy 8 blank
4 security bn/v '04-'06 ('07-13 blank) 9 blank
3 blank (Analog RPM Signal) 10 blank
2 data lg/v 11 blank
1 ignition o 12 blank
NOTE: Some variation occurs across models & years

(Modified from XLForum Sportsterdoc info)

Tachometers

Pre-2004 HD Tachs were pulse input from the ignition coil and designed for use with dual-fire ignitions.

2004-2013 HD Tachs were designed to communicate with the ECM & Speedometer using the Serial Data Bus.

2014-later HD Speedo/Tachs use the CAN-bus communications to the ECM & BCM.


Analog Dual-fire Tach on 2004-2007 Sportster with OEM Digital Speedometer

Here is the info needed to get an RPM signal for most Analog Dual-fire Tachometers on the 2004-2007 Sportsters from your OEM Digital-input Speedometer:

(Only the 2007 model wiring diagram shows Pin#3 as the Tach Output.)
(It is unknown whether 2008-2013 models have speedometers with the needed signal.)
(The Speedo model# also changed in 2014 and those speedometers may not provide this signal.)

Summary: The OEM Speedo provides a valid Tach Signal OUTPUT on the #3 pin of the
Speedometer Connector but does not come stock with a wire connected there.
16)

This is Pin #3 of the OEM Speedometer.
– It is NOT part of the Serial Data Bus which is on Pin2.
– It is NOT using the VSS signal to drive the tachometer.

Quote:
http://xlforum.net/forums/showpost.php?p=4380106&postcount=7

VBDiver on his 2007 Sportster 883L
- bought a HD mini tach (69829-06) (this is an analog tach)

Inside the speedometer housing is a connector with 12 leads and #3 slot
has a red plastic blank in it. pull out the blank & insert female pin
connector on the pink wire provided by HD . note: to insert that female
connector you must remove a blue plastic locking bar that holds all
12 connectors in place. the speedometer has some internal circuitry
that must generate the tach signal because there is no where on any
of the wiring schematics that shows a tach signal and it's not
the data link signal  
Install Instructions for the 69827-06, 69828-06 & 69829-06 Tachometers (dated 02/15/2011)
https://serviceinfo.harley-davidson.com/sip/service/document/216278?locale=en_US

PINK LEAD CONNECTION TO TACHOMETER SIGNAL SOURCE For ALL OTHER models
(This means 2004-later for Sportsters)
The tachometer signal source is the #3 cavity in the connector [39B] on
the back of the speedometer. Insert the socket terminal on the pink (PK)
mini-tach wire harness signal lead into cavity #3 of connector [39B].

Pin #3 on OEM Speedo is Tach Signal Out. P/N for needed female socket in connector [39B] is 74196-04 17)

Rather than buying your own female connector and crimp tool, you might want to go to your local HD shop and ask them to create a short wire for you (about 6”) and use their crimping tool to afix the proper female connector onto the end.

Then, when you get home, release the Blue Locking Bar on connector 39B (at the Speedometer) and slide the short wire into the socket at location #3 and relock the bar in place. This will then give you a short pigtail onto which you can connect your Tachometer signal wire.
18)


Single-fire Ignition To Dual-fire Tachometer Adapter

If you are NOT using the OEM Digital Speedometer on your 04+ Sportster, and still want to implement a dual-fire tachometer, you will need an adapter to combine the firing signals from both coils into a single signal to the tach. You can buy such an adapter or make your own:19)


NOTE:
Connect to the INPUT side of the Coil - The Primary Trigger connections.
DO NOT USE THE HIGH-VOLTAGE SPARK PLUG WIRES!
Be sure you have the diode orientation as shown in the diagram.
You can use 1N4004/3/2 for diodes if they are more available.

20)



LIGHTS


Indicator Lights - Idiot Lights

1992-1994 models used Indicator Units without replaceable individual bulbs - The entire unit (incandescent bulb in individual cylindrical housing with pig tail wires) needs to be replaced:

  • 68020-92A - INDICATOR LAMP, OIL PRESSURE (RED)
  • 68021-92A - INDICATOR LAMP, TURN SIGNAL (GREEN) (2 needed)
  • 68023-92A - INDICATOR LAMP, HIGH BEAM (BLUE)
  • 68024-92A - INDICATOR LAMP, NEUTRAL (GREEN)

1995-2007 models used replaceable Indicator Bulbs - P/N 68024-94

  • Generically known as #70 or #2721 bulbs - Replaceable with equivalent LED bulbs.

Here's a thread regarding the bulbs used in the indicator lights:
http://xlforum.net/forums/showthread.php?t=2045738

2014-later

Here is info regarding the repair of faulty indicator lights (2014-later) that use Speedometer activation thru the CANbus.


Headlight

Early model Sportsters (1990-older) used a sealed-beam, 5-3/4“ headlamp. In 1991, they were supplied with a headlamp lens (bulb housing) which uses a replaceable bulb known as an H4 version. The supplied bulbs were rated at 55w for low beam and 60w for high beam. Modern bulb model 9003 is also physically equivalent and may have the H4 designation as well. Various brands and types of bulbs are available in the H4/9003 base fitting including new LED versions. However, not all LED units are sized & positioned correctly for the H4/9003 lens, so some testing of the physical depth (both inside the lens and behind the lens) is necessary to proper fitting. It is important to obtain LED bulbs that are compatible with the headlight housing lens design - It is important in order to produce an appropriate light beam pattern similar to the original motorcycle style projection.

The low beam usually throws a more narrow light, a relatively shorter distance. The front-most element in the bulb has a small reflector built into the bulb to throw the produced light upwards against the lens reflector in order that the light will be projected downward onto the road surface. The high beam (produced by a second element closer to the connector that throws light in a 360° pattern) produces a broader beam and is redirected (by the entire reflector) to throw light farther and wider down the roadway.

Typical (recent) HD wiring practice is to supply the low-beam power on a Yellow Wire and the high-beam power on a White Wire. These wires come from the Left Handlebar, Hi/Lo Headlight Switch. With the introduction of the BCM in 2014, the handlebar switches are digital and communicate their status to the BCM over the CANbus. The BCM uses BLUE/Yellow & BLUE/White Wires to supply power to the Lo & Hi headlight filaments.

See this PDF file at the Candlepower brand website for some additional information about H4 & 9003(HB2) specifications. Also an interesting read that shows reflection diagrams is THIS WEB PAGE LINK regarding H4 vs 9003 bulbs.

h4-bulb-conn.jpg21)


Tail Light, Brake Light and License Light

Tail Light & Brake Light

1986-2003E - The standard tail light / brake light bulb for these models was a bayonet type bulb (P/N 68168-89A). Generically, it is known as a #1157 bulb. See the description of the dual-element Run/TurnSignal bulbs BELOW as the bulbs are the same and the socket similar.

2003L-later - Mid-year of 2003 there was a change to a wedge type bulb (P/N 68167-88). Generically, it is know as a #3157 bulb. Later, the HD bulb P/N was changed (P/N 68167-04), but the same generic #3157 bulb is compatible. The physical mounting socket is a twist-lock type that mounts on the lens with a short cable (P/N 68370-03A) that plugs into the distribution circuit board.

2011 - Later - All Custom model Sportsters received a new, self-contained, LED Tail Light assembly (P/N 69352-11A). The LEDs are integrated into the lens assembly and cannot be replaced separately. The other Sportster models (with a center tail light) continued to use the #3157 type bulb.


22)


License Light

1986-2018 - All models that have a center tail light have a clear area in the lens which provides light onto the license plate using the same bulb as the tail light. See the tail light section for bulb information.

Exceptions - None of the following models (in the chart) have a center tail light. For 2007-2013 models, the Tail Lamp Converter Module (P/N 68278-07 - See diagram in Turn Signal Section) creates the RUN/TURN/BRAKE functions using only the two rear turn signal units, while the BCM creates these functions for 2014-later models. All these models use a sidemount license plate, therefore, they also utilize a self-contained LED License Light Assembly.

LED License Light Assembly
Part No. Years Models Where Used
68183-07 2007L-2009
2009
1200 Nightster
883 Iron
60375-10 2010-2012
2010-2013
2010-2013
2012-2013
1200 Nightster*
883 Iron
Forty Eight
Seventy Two
67900157 2014-2018
2014-2018
2014-2016
2016-2018
2018-later
883 Iron
Forty Eight
Seventy Two*
1200 Roadster
1200 Iron
* Model Ends



Turn Signals


Turn Signal Basic Functions

1986-90 Simple Turn Signal Function

These model years HD implemented a basic turn signal circuit using a bi-metallic, current/heat-controlled, Turn Signal Flasher Unit similar to those in automobiles. The 12v power wire feeds thru the Flasher and then goes to the handlebar switches. The Left or Right handlebar turn signal switch could be pressed to feed the power to the bulbs on that side of the bike. When connected to the bulbs, thus completing the circuit, the Flasher unit would supply power until the current flowing through it would heat the bi-metallic elements sufficiently to cause a break (like a circuit breaker) in the circuit. Once the flasher cooled down, the bi-metallic elements would again conduct power to the turn signal bulbs, thus causing an on-off cycle that repeated until the handlebar switch was released.

For 1986 ONLY, the handlebar TS switches were ClickOn - ClickOff, locking switches. This allowed the rider to push them down to begin the flashing. The switch would remain down on it's own until the rider again pushed down to cause them to release.
For 1987-1990, the TS switches reverted back to the 1982 style, requiring the rider to hold down the button to keep the flasher working.

The front TS units have dual-element bulbs (P/N 68168-89A - #1157) that provide Running & Turn Signal functions. The rear TS units have single-element bulbs (P/N 68572-64B - #1156) that provide Turn Signal functions only.

  • (Converting to LEDs) - Because of the way these bikes were wired, you can replace the single current/heat-activated flasher with a new electronic flasher that is capable of properly flashing LEDs or Incandescent bulbs. However, the indicator light may need to be modified by grounding one side and feeding power from the right and left circuits thru diodes to the power side of the indicator.
    (See the schematic mods in the REF section: HERE)


1991-2003 Self-Cancelling Turn Signal Function

In 1991, HD began using a self-cancelling turn signal module (TSM). The module isolated the turn signal switches from the higher current supplied to the turn signal bulbs. The module accepts input from the handlebar turn signal switches, provides power to run the turn signals, either left, right or 4-way, and accepts input from the speedometer to calculate a self-cancelling function.

The TSM still utilizes a current/heat load design to operate the internal flashing function. It expects a nominal 2-amp load from each bulb (front & rear).

This module receives a positive signal from the left or right handlebar switch (which are momentary action switches) when pressed. This begins the turn signal flashing function. The function continues as long as the switch is held down. When the switch is released, the module begins counting the pulse signals it receives from the speedometer in order to calculate the amount of distance travelled. Once the predefined distance is travelled, the unit turns off the flashing function. If the right turn signal switch is pressed while the left turn signal is flashing, the left will stop and the right side will begin a flashing sequence (same if right is flashing & left TS switch is pressed). Any time during the flashing sequence, if the same switch is pressed again, the flashing will stop.

The 4-way flasher function is activated by momentarily (min. 3 seconds) pressing both the left and right turn signal buttons at the same time and cancelled in the same way.

The operation of the canceller pulse signal from the speedometer can be checked at the TSM.

  • On 1991-1994 models, a reed switch in the speedo is used to indicate travel. As the front wheel rotates, the reed switch closes once for each revolution of the speedo cable. With the power off, you can check the speedo signal input to the TSM at Pin#3. Using a multimeter set to ohms, check between Pin#3 and ground to see that it alternates between 0-ohms and infinity when the front wheel (or speedo cable) is spinning.
  • On 1995-2003 models, there is a sensor called the Vehicle Speed Sensor. This signal goes to the speedometer and the speedo then creates a cancel signal to send to the TSM. With power on, you can use a multimeter to monitor the cancel signal (1995-1996 on TSM Pin#3, 1997-2003 on TSM Pin#5) to see 9-11vdc with the bike stationary. On a lift device that allows the rear wheel to spin (safely), the input signal to the TSM should read 3-6vdc (on a multimeter) with the rear wheel moving at 3mph or more.
Example: 1998 Turn Signal Cancellation - Calculation & Signal
The turn signal cancellation function is
not a linear calculation of speed.

Instead, it uses an internal table as
shown here.
Speed (mph) Distance Here is the speedo
generated signal to
the tsm.
23)
0-34 221ft
35-44 339ft
45-60 689ft
61+ 1051ft

Handlebar Switches - From 1991-1995, the handlebar TS switches were the same 1982-style, momentary contact. But with the TSM, they allowed simple Press & Release to activate or deactivate the TS function within the TSM. In 1996, the switch housings were changed to implement new, more rounded-edged, switches. (This style housing was continued up thru 2008, with part number changes in 2000).

The front TS units have dual-element bulbs (P/N 68168-89A - #1157) that provide Running & Turn Signal functions. The rear TS units have single-element bulbs (P/N 68572-64B - #1156) that provide Turn Signal functions only.

  • (Converting to LEDs) - To use the stock TSM setup with LED turn signal bulbs, you will need load equalizer resistors on each turn signal circuit to simulate (to the TSM) the normal load of the incandescent bulbs. A 6-ohm, 50-watt Resistor is necessary for each bulb that you replaced with an LED bulb on the Left & Right circuits. Simply connect the resistors in parallel of the bulb circuit. One side of the resistor(s) is connected on the turn signal power wire to the bulb (typically, Violet wire on Left circuit, Brown wire on the Right circuit) and the other side of each resistor is connected to ground. The load resistors are needed to satisfy the TSM and make it function normally.

( Here's a discussion about low-watt TS bulbs: http://xlforum.net/forums/showthread.php?t=2069154 )

2004-06 Self-Cancelling Turn Signal Function 24)

In 2004, HD implemented on the Sportster models a TSM which was also used on the BT models. This TSM includes all the functions of the previous versions plus added the Bank Angle Sensor (BAS) function which allows cancelling the turn signals based on lean angle. This TSM implemented control over the Starter Relay in communications with the Ignition Control Module. There is a variation of the TSM which adds security features (known as a TSSM - Turn Signal/Security Module). Either one of these (TSM or TSSM) is located under the battery (same as in the picture for 2007).

This TSM still utilizes a current/heat load design to operate the internal flashing function. It expects a nominal 2-amp load from each bulb (front & rear) as did the 1991-2003 TSM.

This module receives a positive signal from the left or right handlebar switch when pressed (these are momentary action switches). This begins the turn signal flashing function. The function continues as long as the switch is held down. When the switch is released, the module, in communications with the speedometer, calculates the amount of distance travelled. Once the predefined distance is travelled, the unit turns off the flashing function. It will also turn off the flashing function within 2 seconds after determining (using the BAS) that a turn has been completed. If the right turn signal switch is pressed while the left turn signal is flashing, the left will stop and the right side will begin a flashing sequence (same if right is flashing & left TS switch is pressed). Any time during the flashing sequence, if the same switch is pressed again, the flashing will stop.

The 4-way flasher function is activated by momentarily pressing both the left and right turn signal buttons at the same time and cancelled in the same way.

The front TS units have dual-element bulbs (P/N 68168-89A - #1157) that provide Running & Turn Signal functions. The rear TS units have single-element bulbs (P/N 68572-64B - #1156) that provide Turn Signal functions only.

  • (Converting to LEDs) - To use the stock TSM setup with LED turn signal bulbs, you will need load equalizer resistors on each turn signal circuit to simulate (to the TSM) the normal load of the incandescent bulbs. A 6-ohm, 50-watt Resistor is necessary for each bulb that you replaced with an LED bulb on the Left & Right circuits. Simply connect the resistors in parallel of the bulb circuit. One side of the resistor(s) is connected on the turn signal power wire to the bulb (typically, Violet wire on Left circuit, Brown wire on the Right circuit) and the other side of each resistor is connected to ground. The load resistors are needed to satisfy the TSM and make it function normally.


2007-13 Self-Cancelling Turn Signal Function

Image from HandOverFist at XLForum threadid=1318832Image from HandOverFist at XLForum threadid=1318832 In 2007, HD implemented a new version of the TSM. This TSM includes all the functions of the 2004 version plus adds interlock inputs from the Clutch Switch and Neutral Switch to assist in controlling the Starter Relay. There is also a variation of the TSM which adds security features (known as a TSSM - Turn Signal / Security Module) and an optional module called the Hands Free Security Module (HFSM). These (TSM or TSSM or HFSM) are located under the battery. (see the picture)

The TSM now monitors the current used when the turn signals flash. (This fact, and some anedotal evidence, seems to indicate that these modules are capable of properly handling variations in the current load of the bulbs that are used.)

This module receives a positive signal from the left or right handlebar switch when pressed (these are momentary action switches). This begins the turn signal flashing function. The function continues as long as the switch is held down. When the switch is released, the module, in communications with the speedometer, calculates the amount of distance travelled. Once the predefined distance is travelled, the unit turns off the flashing function. It will also turn off the flashing function within 2 seconds after determining (using the BAS) that a turn has been completed. If the right turn signal switch is pressed while the left turn signal is flashing, the left will stop and the right side will begin a flashing sequence (same if right is flashing & left TS switch is pressed). Any time during the flashing sequence, if the same switch is pressed again, the flashing will stop.

The 4-way flasher function is activated by momentarily pressing both the left and right turn signal buttons at the same time and cancelled in the same way.

(The internal handlebar switches used a part number suffix of -96 up thru 2008 - then the part numbers in 2009 changed to implement a -06 part number - Unknown compatibility)

On all of these 2007-2013 models, the front TS units have dual-element bulbs (P/N 68168-89A - #1157) that provide Running & Turn Signal functions. On models with a center tail light, the rear TS units have single-element bulbs (P/N 68572-64B - #1156) that provide Turn Signal functions only. However, in 2011, the rear single-element bulb part number changed (P/N 68163-84 - #7506 generic) to designate a lower power, brighter version.

Rear Turn Signals - Exceptions: 25)
2007L-2012 1200 Nightster (ended in 2012)
2009-2013 883 Iron
2010-2013 Forty Eight
2012-2013 Seventy Two
The above models use a Tail Lamp Converter Module (P/N 68278-07) to create Run/Turn/Brake functions using only the Rear Right & Left Turn Signal units. These models have no center Tail Light. The rear turn signal bulbs are dual-element bulbs (P/N 68168-89A - #1157). The Dim Element is used as the Running Tail Light while the Bright Element is used for both the Turn Signal & Stop Light Function.

  • (Converting to LEDs) - There is some evidence that some of the TSM/TSSM modules are capable of sensing and properly controlling LED turn signals. According to a post from Screw Loose Dan26), the following procedure may allow the LED upgrade to function without the need for load equalizer resistors:
    • After removing or replacing your selected turn signals with LED versions:
    • Reset the TSM by briefly pulling the MaxiFuse - then replace it
    • With the Run swith OFF, turn the Ignition Switch to Run/Ignition (Do Not Start)
    • Put the left turn signal on for a minimum of 15 blinks - Then off
    • Put the right turn signal on for a minimum of 15 blinks - Then off
    • Turn the Ignition switch OFF
    • Now, start the bike and check the turn signal functions
    • (Note: a variation is to use the 4-way flashers for 15 flashes after the individual turn signals)
  • (If your particular module for these years does not respond correctly after doing the above procedure, you may need to install load equalizer resistors as detailed for earlier models. BUT, you may also want to wait for a week, putting up with the hyperflash to see if your TSM is just a 'slow learner' and whether it will 'eventually' learn to deal with the LEDs.)27)
  • Service Bulletin M-1115 relates to earlier version TSM/TSSM for BT models (using a similar procedure with 5-blinks required), but might apply to later XL versions.


2014-later Self-Cancelling Turn Signal Function

In 2014, the Turn Signal Module (TSM) function was integrated into the Body Control Module (BCM), which controls many of the power functions and is located between the battery & the ECM. This change, in association with implementing the CANbus communications system between the intelligent modules, means that all the functions previously handled by the TSM are incorporated into the BCM along with many other functions. There is also a variation of the BCM which adds security features (similar to the TSM/TSSM modules previously).

In 2014, the handlebar switch housings were changed again (matching the FX-style models). The switch sets (both left & right) are now implemented with intelligent components. They no longer send their individual switch functions on separate wires, but instead communicate with the BCM/ECM using the CANbus to send the status of the individual switches.

The BCM receives a signal on the CANbus from the left or right handlebar switch when pressed (these are momentary action switches). This begins the turn signal flashing function. The function continues as long as the switch is held down. When the switch is released, the module, in communications with the Electronic Control Module (ECM), calculates the amount of distance travelled. Once the predefined distance is travelled, the unit turns off the flashing function. It will also turn off the flashing function within 2 seconds after determining (using the BAS) that a turn has been completed. If the right turn signal switch is pressed while the left turn signal is flashing, the left will stop and the right side will begin a flashing sequence (same if right is flashing & left TS switch is pressed). Any time during the flashing sequence, if the same switch is pressed again, the flashing will stop.

The 4-way flasher function is activated by momentarily pressing both the left and right turn signal buttons at the same time and cancelled in the same way.

On all of these 2014-2018 models, the front TS units have dual-element bulbs (P/N 68168-89A - #1157) that provide Running & Turn Signal functions. On models with a center tail light, the rear TS units have single-element bulbs (P/N 68163-84 - #7506 generic) that provide Turn Signal functions only.

Rear Turn Signals - Exceptions: 2014-2018 883 Iron 2014-2018 Forty Eight 2014-2016 Seventy Two 2016-2018 1200 Roadster 2018-later 1200 Iron The above models have no center Tail Light. The BCM creates Run/Stop/Turn functions with the Rear Right & Left Turn Signal units. The rear turn signal bulbs are dual-element bulbs (P/N 68168-89A - #1157). The Dim Element is used as the Running Tail Light while the Bright Element is used for both the Turn Signal & Stop Light Function.

  • (Converting to LEDs) - The BCM has a definite procedure (using the 4-way Hazard Flashing) for learning the lighting loads that are normal (whether incandescent, LED or otherwise). The instructions state:
    • The BCM can self-learn when the Hazard flashers are active after the LED installation
    • The BCM ignores the first two cycles of the Hazard flashes
    • It then learns during the next ten Hazard flashes
    • After 12 cycles of the Hazard flashes, the settings are updated in the BCM

( Reference for Turn Signal Switches - Part Numbers for all years )

Turn Signal/Security Module - TSSM

Security Siren
The security siren is a self-contained unit. It has its own power supply, a 9-V rechargeable battery. It is mounted near the rear brake master cylinder below the swingarm.

Not needing frequent replacement, the battery life, under normal conditions, is approximately three to six years. The siren battery may not charge if the vehicle’s battery is less than 12.5 volts. Only a nickel metal hydride (Ni-MH) nine-volt battery should be used in the siren. The current stock part number is 69309-10 (about $16 - supercedes previous P/N). It is a VARTA brand, P/N V7/8H (Type 5622) battery with these specs: 8.4v, 150mah, charging rate of 15h @ 15ma. These batteries will discharge relatively quickly when the bike is parked, being mostly depleted within a few months of storage at room temperature.

If the siren does not chirp on a valid arming command from the TSSM, the siren is either not connected, not working, or the siren wiring was opened or shorted while the siren was disarmed.

Three chirps will be heard, instead of the normal 2 chirps, if the siren is armed and the internal siren battery is dead, shorted, disconnected, or has been charging for a period longer than 24 hours.

When the TSSM has been armed and a security event occurs, the alarm cycle is activated, causing the siren to sound and the turn signal lamps to flash.


Turn Signal Wiring - General


Simplified Schematics of Turn Signal Circuits

28)
(For 86-90 LED mods see the schematic in the REF section: HERE)
29)


Turn Signal Bulbs & Sockets

30)

NOTES:
On 1157 socket, Bright contact is CW from deepest locking pin
You can also find a chart of alternative 1157 bulbs in the Reference Section HERE.


31)


Turn Signal Modules


Year TSM - No SecurityTSM w/Sec Module
1973-1990 68543-64B - Simple Bi-Metallic Flasher Unit
1991-1992 68537-89C (TSM)
1993 68537-89D (TSM)
1994 68570-94 (TSM)
1995-1996 68570-94B (TSM)
1997-2003 68540-96 (TSM)
2004-2005 68920-01C (Std TSM) 68980-04 (TSSM)
2006 68920-01D (Std TSM) 68922-00D (TSSM)
2007-2013 68920-07 (Std TSM) 68924-07 (TSSM)
TS Functions incorporated into BCM - Body Control Module
2014 69992-12A (Std BCM) 69994-12A (BCM/SM)
2015-2016 69992-12B (Std BCM) 69994-12B (BCM/SM)


2014 - later BCM
(Body Control Module) —- The BCM (on 2014-later models) is used to supply power to most controlled circuits.




1)
Edited submission from SportsterDoc of the XLForum
2) , 12) , 13) , 20) , 21) , 22) , 28) , 29) , 30) , 31)
Illustration created by IXL2Relax at the XLForum
6)
1995/1996 Wiring Diagrams and Electrical Troubleshooting Guide - 99948-96
7)
Speedo-barrygreen at XLForum threadid=1434026
8)
ECM-HandOverFist at XLForum threadid=1526835 Post#222
9)
From the Electrical Diagnostic Manual
10)
Modphiss at XLForum threadid=1434026
14) , 15)
Annotated by IXL2Relax at the XLForum
16)
Finally indicated on the '07 wiring diagram even though it was functionally there from 2004+
24) , 25)
Diagram created by IXL2Relax of the XLForum
27)
xElvis at xlforum.net/forums/showthread.php?t=2074413
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